Showing posts with label breast augmentation surgery. Show all posts
Showing posts with label breast augmentation surgery. Show all posts

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Woman Fakes Breast Cancer to Raise Money for Plastic Surgery

In an effort to raise funds for her breast augmentation surgery, a 27-year-old Arizona woman lied to her family, friends, and co-workers saying she had breast cancer and needed double mastectomy and breast reconstruction.
Jami Lynn Toler, who worked at a local hospice, has been charged with fraud and theft, police authorities said.
Toler’s former co-workers said she solicited money by making up stories and even crying in front of her boss to persuade them to give her “funds” for her cancer treatments and reconstructive breast surgery
According to police reports, Toler’s boss helped her raised funds amounting to more than $8,000 since September.  Meanwhile, one co-worker said “people were scammed simply because of their good intentions and sincerity to help the suspect.”
Aside from Toler’s friends and co-workers, she also deceived her mother and grandmother who also gave a portion of their savings to help the suspect.  
Meanwhile, Toler’s co-workers and friends became suspicious when one doctor offered to treat her cancer for free but she declined.  She also paid a cosmetic plastic surgery in cash, according to police reports.
When investigators checked Toler’s medical records, they found that she was not suffering from breast cancer.
This is not the first time a woman faked breast cancer to raise funds for her breast augmentation surgery.  A few years ago, Trista Joy Lathern from Texas lied about having the disease and raised about $10,000.
To make her story believable, the suspect has even shaved her head to look like she was receiving chemotherapy.

Monday, March 26, 2012

Botox for Faster Recovery After Breast Augmentation?

Breast augmentation surgery involves pain and discomfort during recovery.  However, plastic surgeons have come up with different techniques to shorten the healing time and reduce soreness and other postoperative symptoms.

One possible way to shorten the recovery is Botox injection; plastic surgeons use this treatment “off-label” to encourage the pec muscle to relax and allow the high-riding breast implants to settle downward quicker.

“Off-label” means using a treatment or drug beyond its real purpose.  For instance, Botox has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to remove certain types of facial wrinkles and address muscle spasm, although some doctors use it to encourage the implants to settle quicker into their natural position. 

After breast augmentation surgery, it is normal for the implants to appear unusually high off the chest wall.  This appearance generally lasts two months, although some women have to wait for as long as four months, as it takes time for the implants to drop and settle to a more natural place.

By relaxing the chest muscle, advocates of Botox believe the treatment can also speed up the recovery of patients.  And because the muscle is partially paralyzed, they also claim that there is less spasm and pain.

Crampy spasm following breast implants surgery commonly lasts several weeks or even months for some patients.

However, patients should realize that not all doctors recommend Botox injection to shorten the recovery after breast augmentation.  This is because other postoperative procedures have also been proven effective in minimizing pain and discomfort, and encouraging quicker healing.

For instance, some doctors recommend breast massage with compression exercise which can lead to faster recovery and encourage the implants to settle more naturally.  But when doing the procedure, patients should do this carefully and should avoid pinching the shell as it may affect the stability of the device.

Real Housewives Star Admits Plastic Surgery

While most celebrities deny having plastic surgery even if the result is too drastic and blatant, Real Housewives star Brandi Glanville has no qualms admitting going under the knife to improve her appearance.  In fact, she even said that in a town where “everyone is perfect, it is important to look good.”
In a previous interview, Glanville, 39, said she had breast augmentation surgery, a procedure necessary to regain the volume loss associated with pregnancy, in addition to increase her bust size.  And aside from breast implants, the star also admitted having regular treatments of laser to address her skin problems including “adult acne” and Melasma, a condition in which the skin produces too much pigmentation.
The TV personality also admitted to be receiving weekly spray tan to maintain her skin’s glow without damaging it, in addition to Botox injection and fillers to fight the early signs of aging.
Because she grew up modeling, she said that she is extremely aware of her physical appearance and knows the areas which need some improvements.  Another reason for her penchant for plastic surgery is the fact that she is now back in the dating scene.
To Glanville’s detractors who called her “plastic,” she said that “everyone has the right to do anything that can make her feel good.”
The good thing about Glanville is that despite having several cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non-invasive in nature, she looks naturally beautiful.  This is probably due to her belief that “less is more” which is her approach in plastic surgery.
Her breast augmentation is a clear example of Glanville’s “less is more” approach in plastic surgery.  While many celebrities have chosen large breast implants that gave them the “heavy top” look, she opted for smaller ones that perfectly fit her slender frame, thereby the result is a very natural appearance.
Leading Los Angeles plastic surgeon Dr. Tarick Smaili, who did not treat Glanville, said he is noticing a shift to a “more natural appearance.”
“Celebrities nowadays are choosing smaller breast implants that will give them a more natural, sexy look.  For example, Kate Hudson and Victoria Beckham have been rumored to have had breast augmentation using smaller implants, while Dolly Parton and Denise Richards have downsized their implants,” Smaili said.
Aside from giving a natural appearance, the renowned plastic surgeon also cited other advantages of small- to medium-sized breast implants including faster recovery, lower risk of downward displacement and sagging, and less chance of developing stretch marks.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Breast Augmentation to Treat Hypoplasia

Contrary to popular belief, breast augmentation surgery is not only used to improve the figure; for some women, this procedure is needed to address deformities such as hypoplasia in which one or both breasts never mature properly.

Many women with this condition suffer from emotional pain because the breasts have always been associated with femininity and sensuality.  Fortunately though, most cases can be corrected by breast implant surgery; and because it is performed as a reconstructive procedure, insurance reimbursement is often possible. 

There are many factors which can lead to breast hypoplasia including hormone abnormalities.  If this is the problem, hormone therapy might resolve the condition and allow the breast tissue to develop normally. 

Hypoplasia can also be the result of systemic disorders, which must be addressed immediately while the patient is still young to increase the success rate of the treatment.  And for some, the problem may have originated from the damaged or injured undeveloped breast bud.

In some cases, underdeveloped breasts are caused by anorexia.  By simply addressing this underlying problem, most patients can develop normal breasts right after they regain their normal weight.

As much as possible, doctors treat the underlying problem before they even consider breast augmentation surgery.  However, there are cases in which the patients show no particular reason why their breasts never developed normally; in general, these women are good candidates for plastic surgery.

But even if the underlying problem has been resolved, some patients with hypoplasia will not be able to form a normal breast unless they will undergo breast augmentation.  This is because the delicate breast bud, once damaged at an early age, may never recover and lead to underdeveloped bosom. 

Patients with breast hypoplasia have a chest with a juvenile appearance.  And because of lack of anatomical maturity, the condition will often affect the breastfeeding, although some women have normal or limited mammary function.    

While breast augmentation surgery can correct the aesthetic problem caused by hypoplasia, it cannot help women who have no breastfeeding ability and those who lack sensory responses in their breasts.  But at least the look and feel of their breasts will be normal, helping them to overcome emotional and psychological issues caused by aesthetically immature breasts.  

Because hypoplasia patients lack breast tissue, silicone breast implant is more ideal than the saline version because it can mimic the feel and look of natural breasts.  In addition, choosing this type of implant can reduce the risk of palpable and visible rippling.

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Teen Mom Farrah Abraham Proud to Be on Best Cosmetic Surgery List

It is not uncommon for celebrities to deny having plastic surgery even if the result is blatant or sometimes to the point of looking “fake.”  However, this is not the case of Farrah Abraham who is proud to make it on UsWeekly’s 2011 list of best cosmetic surgery.

The celebrity mom, who was featured in MTV’s reality show 16 and Pregnant, tweeted: “Thank you USWeekyly for including me on 2011 BEST: Plastic surgeries.”

After giving birth, Abraham underwent breast augmentation surgery to increase her bust size from cup size A to C.  Despite criticism for having the procedure at a relatively young age, she said that she is happy with her decision.

Los Angeles leading plastic surgeon Dr. Tarick Smaili, who did not treat Abraham, said that she is a good example of natural-looking breasts after plastic surgery.

“The good thing about her breast implant size is that it complements her body and perfectly fits her small frame.  She did not go overboard as some celebrities have done in the past by using large implants that often result to the heavy top look,” Smaili said.

During the 1990s, the cosmetic surgeon said the trend in breast augmentation was the “bigger the better,” despite the unnatural look it gave to some patients, particularly those with small frame.

But nowadays, Smaili said that he is seeing more patients asking for revisions to “downsize their breast implant and achieve a more natural look.”

“I think the trend today is the natural bust size.  Just enough volume especially in the upper poles of the breasts to create more cleavage.  People should know that not all patients who ask for breast augmentation solely want to enlarge their breasts; in fact, a significant number of my patients just want to regain the lost volume caused by pregnancy,” Smaili said.

The cosmetic surgeon added that 300 to 350 cubic centimeter (cc) of breast implant size is often enough to create the natural look, although he warned that factors such as waistline, chest width, natural fat and tissue, and overall body frame should also be considered when deciding for the “right” implant size.

Citing Abraham’s breast augmentation, Smaili lauded her decision to stick “to a realistic size considering her small frame and thin arms.”

“Patients like her are easy to work with.  They know their body and consider its limitation.  While we always remind our patients that going for extremely large implants have many disadvantages, there are some who are still persistent about this.  But any self-respecting and ethical surgeons would have to turn these women down because we should not push the body’s limit—that’s my rule,” Smaili said.

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

50 Years After Silicone Breast Implants Were Introduced

It was in the early 1960s when Thomas Cronin and his team have developed the world’s first silicone breast implants.  The idea started when they noticed that plastic bags used by the blood banks have the same softness of a breast.

When Cronin attended a plastic surgery meeting, one of his colleagues told him about a new company which had a new product that can be made into solid and liquid form, with a variety of viscosity.  Another great thing about the device was the extreme compatibility with the human tissue.

The medical-grade silicone can be turned into a solid form which will serve as the shell, while the cohesive silicone gel will act as the filling.  This material then paved way for the invention of silicone-filled breast implant, one of the most commonly used devices in cosmetic plastic surgery to date.

After creating the first prototype of silicone breast implant, the device was implanted into a dog.  The trial worked okay and so Cronin and his colleagues started to look for a woman who would be interested to have the first breast augmentation surgery through the new device.

The plastic surgeons found a willing test subject: Timmy Lindsey.  Now she is 80 years old and working in a care home in Texas.

At the time, no one would have ever imagined that breast augmentation surgery would become one of the most popular cosmetic surgeries worldwide.  In fact, a 2010 survey conducted by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons showed that 296,000 procedures were performed in the US.

It has been estimated that 5 to 10 million women worldwide had breast augmentation surgery for cosmetic reasons, although a significant number also had it to reconstruct their breasts after mastectomy (or cancer surgery), and for transsexual people to transition from male to female.

While breast augmentation is popular in the US and UK, this is not the case in some countries which have their own standard of beauty.  For example, the procedure is not as popular in Brazil because most people there prefer large buttocks rather than big breasts.

Today, most women who seek for cosmetic breast augmentation are categorized into two groups: those with small breasts who want to increase their bust size, and those mothers who have deflated-looking bosoms which are caused by childbirth.

In the US and most European countries, breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons can only be conducted for patients aged 18 years and older.

Monday, January 30, 2012

Bizarre Stories About Breast Implants

Just recently, a Florida woman made headlines after she was attacked by her ex-fiance’s new girlfriend.  While crime of passion is not uncommon, what makes the story bizarre is that she survived because her salinebreast implant prevented the pocket knife from piercing her heart and lungs.

If this story sounds weird, hold yourself from more bizarre news involving breast implants.

1.     Snake dies after biting a woman’s chest.

In 2011, a model from Israel was attempting a stupid act live on air: kiss a snake.  Unfortunately, the boa constrictor died after it bit her surgically-enhanced breast; reports showed the cause of death was silicone poisoning.

Surprisingly, the model did not suffer from any serious problem although she was rushed to the hospital right after the incident and was given an anti-tetanus shot.

2.     Politician raffles breast implants to raise funds for campaign.

In Venezuela, a politician raised money for his campaign by raffling off breast implants.  Gustavo Rojas defended his action and said that while people raffle televisions and other appliances, he decided to offer cosmetic surgery which he said was far more interesting.

“It is an interesting prize…I’m not showing disrespect to anyone,” Rojas said.  

3.     Woman survives gun attack because of her breast implants.

A Los Angeles woman was shot in the chest but survived when her breast implant stopped the bullet from reaching her heart.

When Lydia Carranza was brought to the hospital and underwent a CT scan, doctors were amazed to realize that the bullet fragments were millimeters away from reaching her heart and other vital organs.

Carranza was at her office when a co-worker’s husband fired at her and his wife.  The wife died during the shooting incident.

4.     Woman survives a car crash thanks to her breast implants.

A 24-year-old Bulgarian woman survived a head-on collision when her 40DD breast implants absorbed most of the impact, preventing fatal injuries on her ribcage, lungs, heart, and other vital organs.

While she survived the accident, her silicone breast implants did not.  A police officer said the devices worked like airbags—they absorbed the impact and protected the victim’s ribcage.

5.     Woman accused of faking breast cancer to get implants.

Trista Joy Lathern from Texas lied about having breast cancer to raise $10,000 which has been used to pay her breast augmentation surgery.  She even shaved her head to look like she was terminally ill.

When authorities found out her scam, she was charged with theft by deception.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Can Breast Implants Lead to Stretch Marks?

As its name suggests, the primary aim of breast augmentation surgery is to increase the bust size using either saline or silicone implants.  In the US, only Allergan and Mentor are allowed by the Food and Drug Administration to sell these products to the market.

One of the most common concerns of patients considering breast augmentation is stretch mark, which happens when the skin tissue is stretched to its limit, resulting to purplish, reddish, or whitish stripes.  This often occurs after a significant weight gain/lose and pregnancy.

In some cases, breastimplants can cause stretch marks although a patient’s predisposition to have them depends on many factors including the implant size.  The rule of thumb is that the larger the device is, the higher the risk of developing the whitish or purplish stripes on the skin.

One effective way to lower the chance of having stretch marks after breast augmentation surgery is to use smaller implants.  Most plastic surgeons will likely agree that a 300 to 350 cubic centimeter (cc) range is a reasonable size.

By contrast, breast implants that come in 500cc size and above are often considered relatively large especially if these are going to be used on petite patients.

Aside from large breast implants, the age also seems to affect the likelihood of developing stretch marks.  According to some surveys, the problem is more common on younger women (those who are in their 20s and younger) than adult patients.

Plastic surgeons have also noticed that placing the implants on top of the muscle (subglandular technique) can increase the risk of stretch marks than positioning the devices below the muscle (submuscular technique).

Perhaps the reason why the subglandular implant placement increases the risk of stretch marks is that only the skin and tissue provide support to the weight of the device.  On the other hand, the submuscular technique offers more coverage and support to the implant, preventing the skin from stretching too much.

Also, most patients who developed stretch marks after breast augmentation have previously experienced the problem, although choosing a reasonable implant size and using the proper implant placement can reduce their risk.

By contrast, it is very unlikely for patients who have not experienced stretch marks to have the problem after breast augmentation surgery.

Fortunately, most patients who have developed stretch marks after breast augmentation reported that the purplish stripes turned white and became barely noticeable within three to four months. 

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Breast Implants for Women with Active Lifestyle

Contrary to popular belief, female athletes and women who live an active lifestyle can have breast augmentation surgery.  However, certain factors must be considered to achieve the best result possible and minimize the risk of complications.

In general, athletic women—especially those who are thin—should use small implants or those from 300 to 350 cubic centimeters range.  By using the right size, their body will not be hindered from certain movements.

The problem with large breastimplants is that they interfere with the patients’ movement, which is a concern of athletes and women who lead an active lifestyle.  Also, these may result to the “heavy top” and unnatural look.

Another consideration to make is that active women often have less amount of fats in their breasts.  This simply means that they are more prone to visible and palpable rippling than women with thicker glandular tissues and fats.

To reduce the risk of wrinkling and rippling, thin athletic women are advised to choose small implants that can provide them a B to C cup bust size after their surgery.  Nonetheless, the exact size also depends on other factors including breast base measurements, chest width, waistline, and other pertinent anatomical features.

Aside from using smaller breast implants, another technique to minimize the risk of wrinkling is to place the devices under the pec muscle rather than in front of it.  In this way, not only the skin and tissue will cover the implant shell but also the muscle.

Another advantage of submuscular implant placement is that it can prevent or postpone ptosis (or sagging) because the muscle provides a strong support.  By contrast, the subglandular placement—a technique in which the device is positioned above the muscle—is believed to increase the risk of sagging and wrinkling particularly on women with limited glandular tissue and fat.

Despite the advantages of submuscular implant placement, one tradeoff is the longer recovery and more pain and discomfort.  But when everything heals, most patients will regain their normal muscle contraction, although in rare occasion some women will have distortion of the lower inner region of the breasts as the pec muscle is flexed.

Fortunately, the problem is relatively uncommon; in fact, some body-builders have submuscular breast implant placement. 

As mentioned earlier, most athletic women have little glandular fats.  For this reason, most plastic surgeons would likely recommend smooth round implants rather than textured tear drop implants which have a rough surface.

Smooth implants can lessen the risk of visible wrinkling especially if there is a little amount of breast tissue and fats to work with.  By contrast, textured implants are not recommended for thin patients because of the risk of rippling.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Did Cameron Diaz Undergo Breast Implant Surgery?

Hollywood sweetheart Cameron Diaz has recently been the center of rumors.  According to some showbiz news reports, the actress may have received breast augmentation surgery after a recent photo shows her seemingly larger bust size while wearing a tiny bikini.

The 39-year-old actress was spotted on the Hawaiian beach during the holiday with a more toned and shapelier body.  Some experts have said that she may have increased her bust size by a cup.

While Diaz’s body appears to be shapelier than the previous years, some people are really not convinced if she had the procedure as the increase in her bust size was not as significant as compared to other celebrities who have gone under the surgical knife.  In fact, some bloggers even said that a slight weight gain may be the primary reason for the actress’ improved figure.

During previous interviews, Diaz was quoted saying that she would love to have a curvier figure, something she said she was not “naturally gifted.”

Meanwhile, the actress was not a first-timer in plastic surgery.  In 2006, she had rhinoplasty or nose surgery after sustaining injuries; however, the Hollywood star said she would rule out cosmetic surgery.

Whether Diaz has gone under the knife or just gained some weight that resulted to a shapelier figure, it is really hard to tell since the increase in her bust size was not dramatic.  And because the actress has brushed off rumors of her alleged breast augmentation surgery, the only thing people can do is speculate.

But assuming that Diaz had breast implant surgery, her decision to choose smaller implants is commendable as it resulted to a very natural appearance rather than looking “heavy” on top. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Tarick Smaili said that he is seeing more and more women opting for the natural look.

“I see that the growing trend is having smaller implants so the results will be natural that it would be hard or even impossible to tell if a woman has undergone plastic surgery or not.  In fact, we’ve seen Hollywood celebrities such as Denise Richards and Pamela Anderson downsizing their bust size with another augmentation surgery,” the leading cosmetic surgeon said.

During the previous years, the actress has been accused of yoyo dieting that left her with a very thin frame and flat chest.  But after she gained some weight, she now looks healthier and shapelier than the previous years.

Monday, January 9, 2012

Snooki Says She Wants Breast Implants After Weight Loss

A month after shocking her fans with her new figure, reality tv star Snooki—whose real name is Nicole Polizzi—said she wants to have breast implants as a reward for her weight loss.

The 4’9” television celebrity, who is known for her countless misdemeanors, Tweeted a message saying that she would not mind having a bigger bust size like her Jersey Shore co-star JWoww whose real name is Jenni Farley.

“All I want for Christmas is big knockers like JENNIWOWW.  Thanks Santa,” the pint-sized reality tv star said on her Twitter account.

With Snooki’s small frame, most people would probably wish that she will choose small- to moderate-sized breast implants so the result will look as natural as possible rather than fake. 

Aside from natural results, considering the overall body frame, chest width, and rib cage can also help breast augmentation patients to minimize the risk of rippling and wrinkling, especially those with limited amounts of fats and tissues in their breasts.

Meanwhile, it is not yet clear on when will Snooki get breast augmentation surgery, although she still trying to meet her weight goal which is 45kg through regular gym sessions and diet pill Zantres-3, a product which she advertizes.

Friday, January 6, 2012

Best and Worst Celebrity Plastic Surgery 2011

The year 2011 has ended great or worse for some celebrities who have always been the most ardent patrons of cosmetic plastic surgery.  While some have managed to improve their looks, others have fallen into their obsession and ended up with a not-so-flattering appearance.

This is a list of best and worst celebrity cosmetic surgery of 2011:

·         Lil’ Kim

She used to look naturally beautiful, but with bad plastic surgery, she ended up having too prominent cheeks and a too pointy nose that almost resembles that of the late King of Pop Michael Jackson.

Another notable change is her bust size.  However, it seems that the 4’11” singer has gone overboard with her outrageously large breastimplants.  It could have been better if she chose smaller ones to fit her petite frame.

·         Kate Hudson

Kate Hudson is a perfect example of a good breast augmentation surgery.  She only asked for small breast implants to better fit her petite frame, giving her a nice B cup from a “double A.”  Because of the natural look she has achieved, not everyone is even convinced that she had plastic surgery, with some even saying that she might have started using “good” push-up bras.

While Kate has not yet confirmed if she went under the knife, her previous photos show the “subtle” improvements.

·         Ashlee Simpson

Her previous nose was too large.  But with a good rhinoplasty surgeon, she now has a smaller, delicate-looking nose that complements her face.  However, the singer is still denying having plastic surgery.

·         Joan Rivers

Over the past several years, television personality Joan Rivers has always been included in the list of worst plastic surgery.  But despite the notoriety of her obsession, she still continues to make some “tweaks” here and there that it is hard to tell how many cosmetic surgeries she had and is planning to have.

·         Jane Fonda

Joan Rivers should learn from Jane Fonda who had facelift, eyelid lift, and necklift.  The actress looks younger and refreshed nowadays, without looking like a wind just blew her face—a manifestation of bad facial plastic surgery.

·         Donatella Versace

The Italian fashion designer may be talented in making fashionable clothes but is probably clueless when it comes to “ideal beauty.”  With her swollen, stretched out lips and her unflattering tan, or sometimes orange complexion, she definitely looks “unglamorous.”

·         Megan Fox

While the sultry actress has repeatedly denied having plastic surgery, it is really hard to refute that her looks are solely from good genes.  Some doctors claim that she had nose job and eyelid surgery to make herself one of the most gorgeous celebrities in Hollywood.  But even if the cosmetic procedures are just plain rumors or real—and her appearance is just created by talented makeup artists and good photoshop skills—she looks stunningly beautiful.

·         Heidi Montag

The reality tv star admitted to have had 10 plastic surgeries in one day.  In 2010, she had buttock augmentation, breast implant surgery, brow lift, Botox injection on her forehead, liposuction on her midsection, neck liposuction, fat injection on her face, chin reduction, ear pinning, and nose job.

But just after several months of her extreme makeover, she said during an interview that she regretted her surgeries.

·         Jennifer Aniston

The actress has previously admitted to have had nose surgeries, although she claimed that these were done to correct her deviated septum, which is the strip of tissue separating the two nostrils.  But whether she had the procedures for cosmetic or reconstructive reasons, she looks more gorgeous these days.

·         Nadya Suleman

The “Octomom” had tummytuck surgery after giving birth to octuplets.  However, her plastic surgeon had probably gone overboard as her abdomen now appears too flat that it has no definition or contour.  Plus, her navel looks like it was created by making a vertical slit, making it hard to deny that she had the procedure.

·         Lisa Rinna

The television host and actress had definitely joined the bandwagon of celebrities with a larger-than-life lip.  While this is a growing trend among famous people, any self-respecting plastic surgeon would definitely not agree with the swollen, stretched out lips.

Also, Lisa’s multiple facial plastic surgeries left her with an unnaturally smooth, windswept appearance.  Meanwhile, she was quoted saying in 2009 that she regretted going overboard with cosmetic procedures.

·         Jocelyn Wildenstein

The wealthy socialite, dubbed as the “Lion Queen” and the “Cat Lady,” has been reported to spend a whopping $4 million just to look like a feline.  For several years, she has managed to make it to the list of worst plastic surgery.

·         Ellen DeGeneres

While Ellen has not yet confirmed if she had plasticsurgery, it is hard to deny that she looks younger and refreshed nowadays.  Some cosmetic surgeons assume that she may have had facelift, eyelid lift, laser skin resurfacing, Botox, and/or neck lift. 

Ellen is a perfect example of “natural look” after facial plastic surgery.